The projects above will almost certainly require more effort in development of accurate formulations, more creative ways of approaching the FSI problems, and more efficient techniques for iterative, parallel computing. As needed for addressing the new modeling challenges faced in bringing solutions to the problems we are targeting, we will work on developing such formulations and techniques. We expect that these method development efforts will be in the general categories of Space–Time Formulation, Multiscale FSI Coupling Techniques, and Parallel Computing Techniques.